# What is expectation maximization imputation?

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## What is expectation maximization imputation?

It uses the E-M Algorithm, which stands for Expectation-Maximization. It is an iterative procedure in which it uses other variables to impute a value (Expectation), then checks whether that is the value most likely (Maximization). If not, it re-imputes a more likely value.

How do you impute missing values in SPSS?

Analyze > Multiple Imputation > Impute Missing Data Values…

1. Select at least two variables in the imputation model.
2. Specify the number of imputations to compute.
3. Specify a dataset or IBM® SPSS® Statistics-format data file to which imputed data should be written.

What is Expectation Maximization for missing data?

Expectation maximization is applicable whenever the data are missing completely at random or missing at random-but unsuitable when the data are not missing at random. In other words, the likelihood of missing data on this variable is related to their level of depression.

### What is Listwise deletion method?

In statistics, listwise deletion is a method for handling missing data. In this method, an entire record is excluded from analysis if any single value is missing.

Can SPSS do FIML?

I believe SPSS uses FIML when you select Analyze>Mixed Models>Linear and select MIXED procedure. You can also use ‘auxilliary variables’ that help inform FIML (See Collins et al.

Why is mean imputation bad?

Problem #1: Mean imputation does not preserve the relationships among variables. True, imputing the mean preserves the mean of the observed data. So if the data are missing completely at random, the estimate of the mean remains unbiased.

## What is expectation maximization in machine learning?

The expectation-maximization algorithm is an approach for performing maximum likelihood estimation in the presence of latent variables. It does this by first estimating the values for the latent variables, then optimizing the model, then repeating these two steps until convergence.

What is the best way to replace missing values in SPSS?

Enter variable names to override the default new variable names. Change the estimation method for a selected variable….

1. From the menus choose: Transform > Replace Missing Values…
2. Select the estimation method you want to use to replace missing values.
3. Select the variable(s) for which you want to replace missing values.

Should I use pairwise or listwise deletion?

Researchers using listwise deletion will remove a case completely if it is missing a value for one of the variables included in the analysis. Researchers using pairwise deletion will not omit a case completely from the analyses. Pairwise deletion omits cases based on the variables included in the analysis.

### What is the major disadvantage of listwise deletion?

Problems with listwise deletion Statistical power relies in part on high sample size. Because listwise deletion excludes data with missing values, it reduces the sample which is being statistically analysed. Due to the method, much of the subjects’ data will be excluded from analysis, leaving a bias in data findings.

How is the mean imputation used in SPSS?

With mean imputation the mean of a variable that contains missing values is calculated and used to replace all missing values in that variable. 3.2.1Mean imputation in SPSS. Descriptive Statistics. The easiest method to do mean imputation is by calculating the mean using.

How is expectation maximization done in SPSS software?

To undertake expectation maximization, the software package, such as SPSS executes the following steps. First, the means, variances, and covariances are estimated from the individuals whose data is complete. In particular, the computer would generate the following information.

## How to impute missing data in SPSS Bayesian regression?

In SPSS Bayesian Stochastic regression imputation can be performed via the multiple imputation menu. To generate imputations for the Tampa scale variable, we use the Pain variable as the only predictor. Analyze -> Multiple Imputation -> Impute Missing Data Values.

Can a stochastic regression be activated in SPSS?

Stochastic regression can be activated in SPSS via the Missing Value Analysis and the Regression Estimation option. However, the Regression Estimation option generates incorrect regression coefficient estimates ( Hippel 2004) and will therefore not further discussed.