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What is extensively drug resistant tuberculosis?


What is extensively drug resistant tuberculosis?

Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB) is a rare type of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (i.e., amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin).

What is the meaning of extensively drug resistant?

Definition: Non-susceptibility to at least one agent in all but one or two antimicrobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to drugs from at most two classes of antibiotic).

WHO announces updated definitions of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis?

The World Health Organization (WHO)’s Global TB Program has revised the definition of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).

What is difference between MDR and XDR?

MDR was defined as acquired non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories, XDR was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimi- crobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories) and PDR was defined as …

Can multidrug-resistant TB be cured?

The pandemic can’t be overcome without improved cures. Only about half the people with MDR-TB around the world are successfully cured. TB treatment is lengthy and burdensome to patients and treatment providers alike. MDR-TB treatment can consist of more than 14,000 pills, plus daily injections for six months.

How is drug resistant TB diagnosed?

FASTPlaque-Response is a phage amplification-based test, and has been developed for direct use on sputum specimens. Drug resistance is diagnosed when M tuberculosis is detected in samples that contain the drug (ie, RIF).

What does it mean when a drug is resistant?

Drug resistance: The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to withstand a drug that once stalled them or killed them.

What is super tuberculosis?

Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB) is a generic term for tuberculosis strains that are resistant to a wider range of drugs than strains classified as extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

What are the new definitions of extensively drug resistant TB?

New definitions for pre-XDR and XDR-TB will help to define more precisely groups of TB patients who require complex treatment regimens. These new definitions are also expected to lead to better reporting, surveillance and monitoring of drug-resistant TB in countries.

What causes multidrug resistant TB ( MDR TB )?

Drug-resistant TB can occur when the drugs used to treat TB are misused or mismanaged. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is caused by TB bacteria that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most potent TB drugs.

How long does it take to diagnose drug resistant TB?

If TB bacteria are found in the sputum, the diagnosis of TB can be made in a day or two, but this finding will not be able to distinguish between drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. To evaluate drug susceptibility, the bacteria need to be cultivated and tested in a suitable laboratory.

What kind of TB is resistant to rifampicin?

* MDR-TB: Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the cornerstone medicines for the treatment of TB. Rifampicin-resistant disease on its own requires similar clinical management as MDR-TB.